Krzysztof Penderecki (tribute to a composer)
Here, below, is an orchestra, all of them playing their instruments in very unorthodox ways, something called extend techniques. These extended techniques cannot be expressed well in what musicians call standard notation. This entry is a tribute to a interesting, contemporary composer from Poland.
A web excerpt of text states: “(Penderecki)(a Polish composer in this video) increases the orchestral density with more wind and brass, and an enormous percussion section of 32 instruments for six players, including a Mexican güiro, typewriters, gongs and other unusual instruments, provocative and controversial. Even the score appeared revolutionary; the form of graphic notation that Penderecki had developed rejected the familiar look of notes on a staff, instead representing music as morphing sounds. His intentions at this stage were quite Cagean: ‘All I’m interested in is liberating sound beyond all tradition. Composers often rely on graphic notation in experimental music, where standard musical notation can be ineffective. Other uses include pieces where an aleatoric or undetermined effect is desired. One of the earliest pioneers of the technique, along with John Cage, was Earle Brown, who sought to liberate performers from the constraints of notation and makes them active participants in the creation of the music.'”
Penderecki uses graphic scores. John Cage and others did beautiful 2D scores, too. Here, below, is one example of how pretty a 2D score can be.
Polymorphia has a graphic score.
First John Cage’s 2D score; his score lists these elements, from 1952.
A. city sounds
B. country sounds
C. electronic sounds
D. manually-produced sounds, including the literature of music
E. wind-produced sounds, including songs
F. small sounds requiring amplification to be heard with the others
Here is one beautiful score.